Waste disposal is one of the major problems being faced by all nations across the world. City like Mumbai generates 7000-10,000 tones waste per day and proper disposal is essential to prevent pollution and maintain aesthetics. Out of this waste, glass, metals, some plastic and paper can be recycled. The biodegradable waste should be processed properly to maintain natural balance of essential elements in the environment. Disposal of biodegradable waste resource can be achieved by several means like incineration, landfills, dumping in the dumping yards, composting etc. These methods have their own hazards. Incineration can lead to respiratory illnesses. Moreover, it may lead to disruption of biogeochemical cycles of several elements and will have long term effects on biosphere. Vermiculture has been used in recent past in urban area, however, it has limitations of space. One of the economic ways would be to install community based biogas plants for processing.
The waste resources which can be processed using Nisargruna Biogas plant include biodegradable kitchen waste, paper waste, green grass, leaf litter, animal remains in abattoirs, hospital waste, green plant waste, cow dung, crop residues, sugarcane, baggase, water hyacinth, etc.
The waste is first segregated carefully to remove non-biodegradable material and then homogenized to make slurry. It is then processed in a sequential manner first by aerobic and then by anaerobic process. The products of the process are biogas consisting of methane, carbon dioxide and water vapour & weed free good quality manure. About 70% of Water can be recycled at the end of the process.
Nisargruna Bio Gas Plant would serve many purposes such as:-
1.Environment friendly disposal of waste, which is the need of the hour.
2.Generation of fairly good amount of fuel biogas, which will definitely support the dwindling energy resources. The gas can be used for as fuel in the kitchen or for power generation.
3.Generation of high quality, weed free manure, which is an excellent soil conditioner. This is very important for replenishing organic carbon in the undernourished soil after years of agriculture.
Nisargruna plant can process biodegradable waste such as kitchen waste, paper, grass, gobar and dry leaves. It offers Zero garbage and Zero effluent and provides high quality manure and methane gas. Weed-free manure obtained from such waste has high nitrogen contents and acts as an excellent soil conditioner. This plant could be set up for eco-friendly disposal of wet-waste generated in kitchens/canteens of big\"Hospitals/Hotels/Factories/residential complexes and can avoid health hazards due to dump sites. This technology of biphasic biomethanation has high potential of solving the solid waste management problems of the urban areas and provides organic manure and bio-gas as a fuel.
The Bio gas plants are useful for Municipal Corporations, Hospitals, Hotels, Housing Societies, Govt. Establishments, Abattoirs, Nagar Palika, Grampanchayat, Farmers. At present, 160 Nisargruna plants are functional in the country.
Nisargruna was developed by Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, and GBES owns the technology rights for implementation.
- Tihar Jail, New Delhi: 1 MT kitchen waste based plant